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#462689 - 03/15/14 05:27 PM Interesting article: compulsion to repeat the trau
jas4159 Offline


Registered: 06/16/11
Posts: 278
The compulsion to repeat the trauma. Re-enactment, revictimization, and masochism.
van der Kolk BA.
Author information Trauma Center, Massachusetts Mental Health Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.
Abstract
Trauma can be repeated on behavioral, emotional, physiologic, and neuroendocrinologic levels. Repetition on these different levels causes a large variety of individual and social suffering. Anger directed against the self or others is always a central problem in the lives of people who have been violated and this is itself a repetitive re-enactment of real events from the past. People need a "safe base" for normal social and biologic development. Traumatization occurs when both internal and external resources are inadequate to cope with external threat. Uncontrollable disruptions or distortions of attachment bonds precede the development of post-traumatic stress syndromes. People seek increased attachment in the face of external danger. Adults, as well as children, may develop strong emotional ties with people who intermittently harass, beat, and threaten them. The persistence of these attachment bonds leads to confusion of pain and love. Assaults lead to hyperarousal states for which the memory can be state-dependent or dissociated, and this memory only returns fully during renewed terror. This interferes with good judgment about these relationships and allows longing for attachment to overcome realistic fears. All primates subjected to early abuse and deprivation are vulnerable to engage in violent relationships with peers as adults. Males tend to be hyperaggressive, and females fail to protect themselves and their offspring against danger. Chronic physiologic hyperarousal persists, particularly to stimuli reminiscent of the trauma. Later stresses tend to be experienced as somatic states, rather than as specific events that require specific means of coping. Thus, victims of trauma may respond to contemporary stimuli as a return of the trauma, without conscious awareness that past injury rather than current stress is the basis of their physiologic emergency responses. Hyperarousal interferes with the ability to make rational assessments and prevents resolution and integration of the trauma. Disturbances in the catecholamine, serotonin, and endogenous opioid systems have been implicated in this persistence of all-or-none responses. People who have been exposed to highly stressful stimuli develop long-term potentiation of memory tracts that are reactivated at times of subsequent arousal. This activation explains how current stress is experienced as a return of the trauma; it causes a return to earlier behavior patterns. Ordinarily, people will choose the most pleasant of two alternatives. High arousal causes people to engage in familiar behavior, regardless of the rewards. As novel stimuli are anxiety provoking, under stress, previously traumatized people tend return to familiar patterns, even if they cause pain.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

PMID:2664732[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Publication Types, MeSH TermsPublication TypesReviewMeSH TermsAdolescentAdultChildChild Abuse, Sexual/psychology*FemaleGender IdentityHumansIncest*MaleMasochism*Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/psychology*Pleasure-Pain PrinciplePsychotherapy/methodsRape*Self Mutilation
LinkOut - more resourcesMedicalChild Sexual Abuse - MedlinePlus Health InformationObsessive-Compulsive Disorder - MedlinePlus Health Information
_________________________
Thanks

rich

justanothersurvivror.wordpress.com

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#462735 - 03/16/14 10:20 PM Re: Interesting article: compulsion to repeat the trau [Re: jas4159]
KMCINVA Offline
Greeter
MaleSurvivor

Registered: 08/31/11
Posts: 1618
Rich

Thank you for posting. Van der Kolk has been a pioneer in the field of trauma. He has written of the effects of hyperarousal and hypoarousal as a result of the trauma we suffered so young. It is rewarding to learn that science is beginning to prove out the effects of trauma and now how external stimuli effects the victim to recreate or relive the abuse. Van der Kolk in his other studies has shown dissociation and fugues effect victims as does compulsion and addictions. For me this helps to validate what doctors and therapists have told me.

When I read this I shared it with my friend. She is knowledgeable in the world of trauma and strangely it relates to a story I told recently on the site. She had told of the witch's kettle brew of poison--poison,the demon the abuser left us with. She said as events and actions that harm us, reminds us of the past and pushes us to act out,to cope to survive the kettle begins to boil over and the poison enters our bodies and mind. The stimuli Van der Kolk spoke of us, is the catalyst that spreads the poison from the kettle. She heard this analogy from a wise person.

My friend said I should share the scientific studies with those that have inflicted acts and words that were stimuli for what unraveled my life. She believes maybe they would begin to learn and understand trauma. I rolled my eyes and smiled, I said it would do little good because they believe they are wiser than the doctors and experts. Those that inflicted these acts and words would turn and deny the experts because it allows them to deny many things in their lives. We know denial is powerful but ultimately takes it toll, and those that deny will never have the life they deserve.

I hope I live to see the day when the impact of trauma is fully understood and we can stop explaining what happened. Once understood better methods to treat should soon follow. And more importantly the world will no longer be able to deny the effects of CSA and people will learn kindness is what everyone needs to heal.

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#462742 - 03/17/14 09:39 AM Re: Interesting article: compulsion to repeat the trau [Re: jas4159]
KMCINVA Offline
Greeter
MaleSurvivor

Registered: 08/31/11
Posts: 1618
This was shared with me. It is wonderful to see science is now beginning to explore trauma years later and immediate effects. The article is titled, "Why Cops Don't Believe Rape Victims Brain science helps explain the problem—and solve it."

http://www.slate.com/articles/news_and_p..._solve_the.html

Kevin

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#463140 - 03/25/14 01:49 PM Re: Interesting article: compulsion to repeat the trau [Re: jas4159]
jas4159 Offline


Registered: 06/16/11
Posts: 278
thanks kenven and i read the article
_________________________
Thanks

rich

justanothersurvivror.wordpress.com

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