It seems we have a basic understanding of "good" items. A muslim may say "learning? Learning the Koran and the women don't learn....or drive."
"Kindness? To whom?" the Nazi asks.
"Community?....yeah....the marketing whiz comments..."a ready-made market!" Wrings his clammy hands and dollar-signs appear over his head.
The Pedophile would say "hey...I really need this kid and I truly don't think it hurts him to have such a fine elder in his life." So he's right??? or is he wrong?
This is a different discussion: instead of "what do you believe in if you don't believe in God?," we have an example of a Muslim who presumably does, a pedophile of which there are no shortage among the devout (not just the Catholic clergy conspiracy issue but also Ultra-Orthodox / Haredi Jews and the Amish have institutionalized pederasty and the protection thereof - and that's just in the U.S.).
So since a believer and an atheist can each do good or evil things, the question really is:
"What makes some beliefs better than others?"
Once you accept the underlying premises of empathy, respect, order, and the value of life, a supernatural agent makes no difference.
Where did our fundamental behaviours come from? What I'm getting at, is; the atheist adheres to some codes of human conduct. But I'm wondering where they think those ideas came from? A communal basic idea of good-and-bad, right-and-wrong have to have an original source.
Humans are social animals - it is part of our evolutionary history. We are safest, we thrive, physically and emotionally, in communities. Those communities are best maintained with a minimum of in-group violence, theft, and dishonesty - and for the life of me I cannot think of a single human culture that does NOT forbid in-group violence, theft, and dishonesty.
Highly intelligent, we are not only self-aware but able to conceptualize that other humans have feelings like we do - our ability to sympathize with them reflects our own mental health and proper socialization.
If we had evolved as sentient, oh, crocodiles, which are independent, antisocial, and cannibalistic, those would have been our norms - our "good." Instead we evolved from highly social creatures and have adapted towards behaviors that for the most part keep that society going, by seeing other people as we see ourselves.
I've highlighted "in-group" many times because humans are also aggressive and warlike, in most cases extending no sympathy to their enemies when crime and slaughter are quicker alternatives. The more mentally-healthy people can properly conceptualize the emotional lives of others, the larger that "in-group" becomes: hence, white abolitionists.
Our big evolved brains are complicated things, and complicated things can go wrong. People in all cultures, of any faith or none at all, can be psychotic, sadistic, clinically lacking in empathy.
But if you want to know where "good behavior" can come from for most people (including most atheists), that's where.